How to Cite
Insert page numbers so they are flush right. APA format recommends that all papers feature a title page and an abstract before the main body. On a new page, write a brief one-paragraph abstract summarizing your book analysis. Do not indent this paragraph.
APA format offers guidance on more than just structure. It also advises you on the stylistics of your writing, specifically in your point of view and word choice. When writing in APA style, you can use first person point of view. APA style encourages that you write with the active voice, especially if your book features scientific data. Throughout your paper, clarity and conciseness are vital. Avoid unnecessary words or overly complex sentence structures. Focus your attention on the specific details.
Instead of reviewing the book chapter by chapter, consider and describe the main themes. Include enough background information so your readers understand these themes and then present their strengths and weaknesses.
When you paraphrase or quote the book you are analyzing, you must include in-text citations. Use software like GraphicConverter or Photoshop to convert color photographs to black and white before printing on a laser printer. Otherwise most printers will produce an image with poor contrast. In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages. While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers.
Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. The APA has determined specifications for the size of figures and the fonts used in them.
Figures of one column must be between 2 and 3. Two-column figures must be between 4. The height of figures should not exceed the top and bottom margins.
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The text in a figure should be in a san serif font such as Helvetica, Arial, or Futura. The font size must be between eight and fourteen point. Use circles and squares to distinguish curves on a line graph at the same font size as the other labels. See examples above. For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption. Then type the title of the figure in sentence case. Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in the figure and a caption that explains the figure:.
Title page (or Cover Page) in APA style: How???! - Answers
Figure 1. How to create figures in APA style. This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures. Captions serve as a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title. If the figure has a title in the image, crop it. Graphs should always include a legend that explains the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology used in the figure. These terms must be consistent with those used in the text and in other figures.
Book report sample: A True Detective: The Confession of Brother Haluin
The lettering in the legend should be of the same type and size as that used in the figure. There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using APA, though there are always exceptions to these rules. When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses. According to the American Psychological Association APA , abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience. Exceptions : Standard abbreviations like units of measurement and states do not need to be written out.
Exceptions : Use a period when abbreviating the United States as an adjective U. Marines or U. Units of measurement and statistical abbreviations should only be abbreviated when accompanied by numerical values:. Citations should be as condensed as possible, so you should know the basic rules of abbreviation endorsed by the APA to provide your readers with reference information.
When including statistics in written text, be sure to include enough information for the reader to understand the study. Although the amount of explanation and data included depends upon the study, APA style has guidelines for the representation of statistical information:. The APA poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference.
Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource dpi , is large, so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu. As is, the poster is 27 x 36 inches. Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster.
The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters. This resource presents the changes made between the fifth and sixth editions. Please note that the first printing of the APA sixth edition contained misprints; if you are using the APA manual, make sure you are using at least the second printing of the sixth edition.
Traditionally, psychologists were the main users of APA, but recently, students and writers in other fields began using APA style. Therefore, the sixth edition was written with a broader audience in mind. The changes made to the sixth edition reflect this broader audience. Headings are used to help guide the reader through a document. The levels are organized by levels of subordination, and each section of the paper should start with the highest level of heading.
How to Write a Book Report in APA Format
For example, in a scientific report following APA style, a report contains three sections: Method, Results, and Discussion. Each of these sections start with level 1 headings:. Refer to participants at the appropriate level of specificity. The manual provides the example of using women and men to refer to all human beings instead of only using man. Man is appropriate to use when referring to one man but not when referring to a population that includes men and women. Refer to participants how they wish to be called. Try to avoid labels if possible, but if this is not avoidable, be respectful. Focus on the people and not the label.
Spacing 4. Regarding punctuation in manuscript drafts, APA suggests using two spaces after periods ending sentences to aid readability. This research project explores how to discuss palliative care with patients. Approximations 4. Use words to express approximations of days, months, and year. Reporting statistics 4.
Use a zero before the decimal point with numbers less than one when the statistic can be greater than one. Include effect sizes and confidence intervals with statistics. This will allow the reader to more fully understand the conducted analyses. Use brackets to group together confidence interval limits in both the body text and tables 5.
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The sixth edition includes a section 5. This section can help you decide when and how to display your data. For example, your data might show that you are exploring data and information, or your data may serve a storage purpose for later retrieval.
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Figures include graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs. As a general rule, only include figures when they add to the value of the paper.
If the figure merely repeats what is written in the paper, do not include it, as it does not add any new information to the paper.
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