When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it.
So, you have to change the wording a little bit.
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In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Your quotation might end up looking like this:. The brackets around the word [money] indicate that you have substituted that word for other words the author used. To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay.
As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference.
For example, if an original passage by John Archer reads:. Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper.
Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words!
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You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation, and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg:. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible.
Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence.
However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Within the staff nurses is a hierarchy of seniority in which the most senior can become resource nurses: they are assigned a patient but also serve as a resource to other caregivers. The experts have administrative and teaching tasks such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing unit policies , and giving hands-on support where needed.
In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others.
Chapter or other part of an edited book
Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients nurse manager , teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician , and policy-making nurse clinician.
In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility. Chase, S. The social context of critical care clinical judgment. Heart and Lung, 24, One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text.
Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in the example below. Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement.
Ross , in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion]. Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your paper and enclose them in double quotation marks:.
Begin longer quotations for instance, in the APA system, 40 words or more on a new line and indent the entire quotation i. Unsucessful Paraphrases page. More than 3 lines of poetry should be indented. As with any extended indented quotation, do not use quotation marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation. With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon :. Menand acknowledges that H. Place outside of closing quotation marks if the entire sentence containing the quotation is a question or exclamation:.
How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: A Step-by-Step Student Guide
According to Hertzberg , Dahl gives the U. Use ellipsis points. Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] not parentheses to add your own clarification, comment, or correction. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th ed. Bazerman, C. The informed writer: Using sources in the disciplines 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Leki, I. Academic writing: Exploring processes and strategies 2nd ed.
New York: St. Spatt, B. Writing from sources 5th ed. The Writing Center has handouts explaining how to use many of the standard documentation systems. You may look at our general Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may check out any of the following specific Web pages. This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels. Incorporating Interview Data. Additional Resources for Grants and Proposal Writing. Writing Personal Statements for Ph. Resources for Proposal Writers. Planning and Writing Research Papers.
APA Style 6th Edition Blog: How to Cite Direct Quotations
Writing Annotated Bibliographies. Creating Poster Presentations. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper.
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