The next big concept is understanding what cause and effect is. This structure often uses words and phrases such as because, since, as a result, due to, consequently, and therefore. Remember, one cause or event can have several effects.

For example, crashing your car can cause broken bones, increased insurance premiums, and angry parents. This one event had three negative effects. And the last big concept to know is what central ideas and themes are and how to identify them.

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Think of main ideas and central ideas as the same thing. They are what the story is mostly about. Main ideas are usually found in literary passages while central ideas are usually found in informational text.

## Top 25 Essay Writing topics for XAT 2018

The theme of a piece of text is the message or lesson the author wants to get across. It is usually a statement about life that readers can apply to their own lives. This will definitely be on the test. A great resource to have would be a very thorough study guide I know of a great one!

Reading passages contain supporting information, or evidence, which includes facts, statements, or examples that guide you to a full understanding of the main idea.

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This evidence is used to clarify, illuminate, explain, describe, expand, and illustrate the main idea. The first big concept to know is word choice and meaning. Why did the author choose to use this word and what does it mean? Authors may choose to use different types of language like figurative or connotative language. For the test, you need to be able to figure out the meaning of words and phrases and how those specific word choices affect the meaning or tone of the passage. The next big concept to know is about story organization and text structure.

## General Knowledge Test | FTCE Prep | FTCE Practice | FTCE Study Guide

For the test, think of these words as synonyms. Organization is the act of putting things into a logical order, and can refer to writing, thoughts, or even your sock drawer! In writing, organization is the arrangement of ideas, incidents, evidence, or details in a specific order. And the last big concept is point of view and purpose. On the test, you may be asked to compare the point of view of two or more authors on the same topic.

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Figurative language is language that uses words with meanings that are different from the literal interpretations. A writer using literal language simply states the facts as they are. A writer who describes something by comparing it with something else is using figurative language. Writers use figurative language to be more effective and persuasive and to give the readers new insights. The most common figurative language are similes, metaphors, and personification. The emotion and association connected to a word is known as its connotative meaning.

Since different people have different experiences, words can connotatively mean different things. Words can have a negative, neutral, or positive connotation. There are really only three things you need to know how to do for this part of the test. You need to know how to:. The next thing you need to know how to do is synthesize information. Basically, you need to take all of your background knowledge the stuff you already know and what you learn from a reading passage to form a better understanding of what the author is trying to say.

And finally, you need to be ready to compare two statements from a passage. On the test, you will for sure be asked to read two sentences from a passage and determine if the second sentence contradicts, explains, restates, clarifies, describes, or relates the first sentence. Reminder: The test center will provide an on-screen four-function calculator and an on-screen reference sheet. The Mathematics subtest can be neatly divided into four different sections.

Those five sections are:. This section tests your ability to order numbers and correctly solve real-world problems using the four operations. In this particular example, you would first solve for the parentheses, then you would solve for the exponents. Then going left to right, you do either multiplication or division then you would add or subtract in the same order from left to right. Now, this is incredibly important because, on the test, you will be required to simplify an equation.

So, you have to know the order of operations to get that question correct. The next big concept to know is the value of real numbers.

A real number is, really, any number you can think of. Real numbers can be negative or positive.

Now, the test will, and I mean will have you place different forms of numbers from greatest to least or least to greatest on a number line. In a given data set, you might have two fractions, a decimal, pi, a negative integer, and a regular integer. You then must organize all of these from least to greatest or greatest to least.

So, make sure you know how to translate decimals to fractions and fractions to decimals, so you can compare the two to figure out which one is greater or less than the others. Now, the last major concept to know from number concepts is how to read, structure, and apply mathematical word problems. Now, my biggest tip to help you with this is simply to work through a lot of authentic practice questions, specifically, word problems in mathematics. So, find a great source of authentic practice questions that you can use. A prime number is a whole number that cannot be made by multiplying other whole numbers together.

Examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, and There are many more. Think of a property as kind of like a rule you need to follow. There are quite a few of these properties:. You need to know what these are and how to solve problems using them. A really thorough study guide would be a great resource to have and use. The first big concept to know is how to identify and classify both two- and three-dimensional shapes based on their properties.

Properties of two-dimensional shapes can include sides, corners, and angles. You also need to know how to find the perimeter and area of two-dimensional shapes and the surface area and volume of three-dimensional shapes. The next big concept to know is what ratio and proportion are. On the test, you will be asked to solve ratio and proportion problems by looking at scaled drawings. A ratio can be written in three different ways:.

The Pythagorean Theorem is used to find any length of a side of a right triangle if you know the other two sides. And I guarantee you one thing, if you take anything from this, take this one thing: you will have a question about the Pythagorean Theorem on the test.

That is an absolute guarantee.

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It will most likely be in some sort of word problem. Billy walked three blocks west, and four blocks north. If Billy walked a straight line, how many blocks would Billy have walked? On the test, you will be asked to find the area of two-dimensional shapes and the surface area of three-dimensional shapes. This reference sheet lists all of the formulas for finding area and surface area. BUT, you do need to spend some time practicing these types of problems. You might be asked to find the area of a trapezoid or the surface area of a cylinder.

The first big concept you need to know is how to solve for x. Solving for x is pretty straightforward. The test will give you an equation and then you have to solve for x. So, the test will give you an equation like:. Now, take note. You are more than likely going to be presented with a real-world word problem.